Breast cancer, cancer that is the most common type among American women. Breast cancer is a group of related diseases in which cells within the breast become abnormal and divide without control or order. The most common types of breast cancer occur in the lining of the ducts or in the lobules of the breast.
One in nine women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Approximately 160,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year. Most breast cancer occurs in women over the age of 50 years. With earlier detection methods, breast cancer is now found at an early stage of development in the majority of women.
All women are at risk for breast cancer. But women with a strong family history of breast cancer, a personal history of breast cancer, early first menstruation, late menopause, or first full-term pregnancy after age 30 are at a higher risk. The risk of developing breast cancer also increases with age. Long-term estrogen therapy, a high-fat diet and alcohol use have been reported as possible risk factors, but their relationship to breast cancer is uncertain. Many women who get breast cancer have none of the known risk factors. In most cases, the disease is probably the result of several factors -- known or unknown -- acting together.
The key to Treatment is early detection and prompt treatment. Physical exams by health care professionals, mammograms and monthly breast self-exams are the important keys to early detection. Women should report any physical changes in their breasts to a doctor. Warning signs include a lump or thickening of the breast or armpit; a change in the size or shape of the breast; a discharge from the nipple; or a change in the color or feel of the skin of the breast or nipple.
To find out the causes of these symptoms, a doctor performs a thorough physical exam. He or she may order blood tests and X-rays. The doctor also may need to remove a piece of breast tissue and look at it under the microscope to see if there are cancer cells present.
There are many treatments for breast cancer. Treatment depends on the size and location of the tumor in the breast and extent of the disease in the armpit and the rest of the body. To develop a treatment plan to fit each patient's needs, the doctor also considers the woman's age and general health, as well as her feelings about the treatment options. Treatments used either alone or in combination include: surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Clinical trials that test new treatments also may be offered.
Who Gets Breast Cancer?
Age, Gender, and Ethnicity
Experts estimate that 175,000 cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in 1999 in US. At this time, age is the major identifiable risk factor. More than 80% of breast cancer cases occur in women over 50, and there is a one in nine chance of having breast cancer if a woman lives to 85. At 40, however, her odds are one in 217, and at 50 they are one in 50. Cancer in women younger than 30 is very rare, accounting for only 1.5% of all breast cancer cases. Native Americans and Asians have lower rates of breast cancer than whites, Hispanics, and African Americans. About 1,600 breast cancers will be diagnosed in men. The mortality rate in African Americans is twice that of whites. According to one study this higher rate is due not only to socioeconomic factors but may also reflect biologic differences. African American patients tend to have larger more aggressive cancers.
Genetic Factors and Family History
About 10% of all women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease. The mutations in genes known as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are now well-known culprits in some early-onset breast and ovarian cancers. About half of BRCA1 carriers have a chance of developing breast cancer by age 70, and according to one study, about 37% of BRCA2 carriers develop the disease. (These percentages may be higher in high-risk families.) BRCA2 and BRCA1 traits can be passed down to the daughter by either the mother or the father. Only about 0.1% of the population carries them. It should be further noted that a family history of breast cancer puts a woman at risk for the disease, even if these genetic mutations are not detected. A defective BRCA gene also sometimes appears in noninherited breast and ovarian cancer patients. Cancer may even develop if the normal BRCA1 gene (which is protective) is either underexpressed or, in some cases, appears to "hide" outside the nucleus of the cell, where it is ineffective.
Researchers have also identified other defective genes that cause breast cancer, including BRCA3, p53, and NOEY2 (which is inherited from the father). A mutant gene for the rare disorder ataxia-telangiectasia may account for many breast cancers. (The disease itself is rare, requiring two copies of the gene, but 1% of the population carries a single copy, which is enough to increase the risk for breast cancer.) Women who have this gene are also more likely to be harmed by radiation, including that from mammography.
Over-Exposure to Estrogen
Because breast tissue is highly sensitive to estrogens, the longer a women is exposed to estrogen over her lifetime, the higher the risk for breast cancer. In fact, one study reported that blood tests measuring high levels of estrogen and testosterone may eventually identify older women at increased risk for breast cancer.
Early Menstruation and Late Menopause. Women who started menstruation early (before age 12) or went through menopause late (after age 55) are at slightly higher risk, as are those who never had children or had them after the age of 30.
Pregnancy and Abortion. Pregnancy plays an odd dual role in breast cancer. It appears to increase the risk for up to 15 years following the first birth, particularly in older women, but after that women who have given birth have a lower risk than those who have not. Subsequent births do not seem to have any additional impact. Studies have detected an increased risk for breast cancer in women who have had abortions, possibly because high estrogen levels occur in the first trimester when abortions are most often performed (estrogen levels tend not to be high when a natural miscarriage occurs). The increased risk from abortion is most likely to be very small, however.
Oral Contraception. A small risk for breast cancer appears to develop in women while taking oral contraceptives and for about 10 years after stopping the Pill.
Hormone Replacement Therapy. A number of studies have indicated an increased risk for breast cancer in women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Although studies indicate that the risk exists only with long-term therapy, one study reported that even one year of HRT could increase the chances of breast cancer. Of further concern for women taking HRT, breast tissue density increases and mammograms may miss some breast cancers. In virtually all studies, however, the real dangers for most women taking HRT are very low. Breast cancers that do occur in women taking hormone replacement therapy also tend to be smaller and less aggressive than most. Some experts argue, however, that the risk of breast cancer from HRT may be underestimated, because until recently women who took HRT tended to be at risk for osteoporosis or heart disease and so were likely to have low estrogen levels. Studies, then, may not yet be reporting the risks for women with normal or high estrogen levels who are now taking HRT to reduce menopausal symptoms or to prevent Alzheimer's disease. Many experts believe that any risk for breast cancer should be weighed against the other health benefits provided by HRT.
A history of proliferative breast disease or atypical cell growth, known as hyperplasia, is a significant risk factor for breast cancer. Benign fibroid tumors may increase risk after many years, particularly if they are complex, such as cysts or if they cause scarring.
Studies have reported mixed effects on the association between obesity and breast cancer. Some suggest that simply being overweight is not a risk factor but that excessive weight gain after menopause is. A number of studies have reported an association between being overweight as a child or young woman and a lower risk for breast cancer. (Estrogen levels are actually reduced in the presence of high fat levels in premenopausal women.) Women with heavy dense bones are at higher risk for breast cancer, since estrogen helps build bone mass. There have been reports of a link between increased height and breast cancer risk, but one controlled study of almost 10,000 women found no association at all. However, women who reached their maximum height at age 18 may have a lower breast cancer risk than women who reached their full height at 13 or younger -- again probably because they had higher levels of estrogen at an earlier age.
Exposure to Estrogen-like Chemicals. Chemicals with estrogen-like effects -- called xenoestrogens -- that are found in pesticides and other common industrial products have been suspects for the increased risk of breast cancer found in specific regions. A number of studies have found no danger to most women from two of the most common environmental estrogens -- PCBs and DDT. Other estrogen-like chemicals that have a stronger association with breast cancer include dieldrin and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Although such chemicals are very weak estrogens, one study stirred alarm by reporting that although exposure to a single weak-estrogen compound poses no risk, combinations of them result in extremely powerful estrogenic chemicals. Many women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent miscarriage produced children with abnormal reproductive systems, and there is some indication that it increased the risk for breast cancer in their offspring.
Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields. Heavy exposure to radiation is a significant risk factor for breast cancer. Women who were treated with high doses of radiation for childhood cancers face a high risk for breast cancer in adulthood. Studies have been conflicting on increased risks from intensive exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). If any risk exists, however, it is likely to be very small.
Reduced Melatonin. Reduced levels of melatonin -- a powerful hormone that affects sleep and other vital functions -- has been associated with breast cancer. This might account for the higher incidence observed in flight attendants.
Find out the type of cancer here.
Small breastsTO ENLARGE IT WITH WHAT?
Breasts not only develop differently from woman to woman, they continue to change shape and size throughout your life. The right breast may not even be the same size as the left.
Breasts can start developing from the age of 10. They continue to grow and change shape throughout puberty.
Their final shape and size depends more or less on inherited characteristics, but a mother and daughter's breasts can develop completely differently.
The size of my breasts:
Only in special medical cases can a hormone supplement be used to make breasts grow. It will get you to a higher risk of getting breast cancer or others cancer .
Birth control pills may give the feeling of a larger bosom, but it's only in pregnancy and when breastfeeding that your breasts may grow visibly.
About silicone implants:
If you are very unhappy with your breast size or shape, or have had part of a breast removed as a result of cancer, you may decide to have silicone implants.
For many it is a costly and often painful operation, but it is becoming more common.
However, there have been several health scares as a result of implants. Some women claim the silicone has leaked and caused related health problems, but these claims have not been medically proven.
Operation or unlucky:
Implants are placed on the chest under the muscles, which leaves the breast tissue untouched and also means that the nipples will stay in natural contact with the gland tissue.
The implants are inserted under the skin, with the exact location depending on the size and shape of the breasts.
Some women go to hospital for the operation, whereas others are treated as outpatients but rely on receiving rest and care at home. The operation is performed under full anaesthetic.
Those unlicky women have to pay for the operation, but it can also be done by breast surgery.Does come to us for follow ups because of complications. Also, if you are very distressed by your breast size and it is judged that an operation is the un-natural dump method to deal with your distress because your husband will notise the different between natural and artificial breast.Many of the models that have done a operation or implant also comes for treatment because it may couse in complete conditions usually.
Breast cancer happens when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control and can then invade nearby tissues or spread throughout the body. Large collections of this out of control tissue are called tumors.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women in North America and Europe. Every woman is at risk for breast cancer.
Definition of breast cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male breast cancer is rare.
Breast cancers are cancer cells from the breast. When breast cancer cells spread to other parts of the body, they are called metastases.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that has developed from cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that may invade surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body.
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